In a busy commercial building, where heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are consistently in use, the performance and durability of the pipework connecting system components is paramount to ensure the system’s performance as well as for ensuring the occupant’s health and safety.  Exposed to a wide range of stresses, temperatures and pressures, steel tubes used within HVAC and building service applications need to meet specific requirements to ensure their reliability. For example, it is essential to take into account the fluid being conveyed, as this can often contribute to the deterioration of the tube in service. Extremes of acidity or alkalinity or high levels of oxygen within the system can result in corrosion. Furthermore, if high levels of calcium are present — often common in hard-water areas — build up and blockages within the pipework can occur. In such cases it is therefore essential to employ an appropriate fluid treatment in the pipework system. When considering the correct product for a HVAC application, the tube-manufacturing process is often ignored, with other factors such as the material specification or legislative compliance being considered more important. Yet the steel tube’s manufacturing process is actually vitally important in respect of its performance in service. Steel tubes used in building-services applications are normally ordered to BS EN10255, the successor to the old BS1387. However, whilst withdrawn in 2004, BS1387 is still commonly referenced, which can lead to procurement and compliance issues. Tubes to BS EN10255 can be produced by two notably different manufacturing processes — either hot-finished or cold-formed. Welded steel tubes produced in this way have markedly different physical properties which will affect their in-service performance, hence the importance of taking the manufacturing process into consideration.  Cold-formed tubes are produced from steel strip that is formed and welded at ambient temperature to produce a cylindrical tube shape. Whilst undergoing this process, the material hardens, due to the cold working and the welding process, resulting in internal stresses being induced in the tube. The main stress occurs in the region adjacent to the weld seam, often referred to as the heat-affected zone (HAZ). Within this region, the steel has a distorted gain structure, caused by the heat input of the welding operation. This makes it harder and less malleable, and any subsequent fabrication or manipulation during installation may further increase the internal stress level, resulting in a greater risk of cracking or of failing in service due to an increased vulnerability to corrosion.  Whilst the manufacturing process for hot-finished tubes may appear similar to that of cold formed, it includes one additional vital step that ensures the removal of any internal stresses. This involves induction or furnace heating of the tube to a very high temperature. As the temperature rises, the internal stresses in the steel are relaxed and the distorted grain structure of the heat-affected zone adjacent to the weld line is completely removed.  As such, hot-finished tube products offer 10 benefits over their cold-formed counterparts. • A more ordered and consistent microstructure • No internal stress that can promote cracking  • More consistent and reliable mechanical properties  • Improved structural integrity and ductility  • Improved and more consistent toughness  • A higher pressure integrity  • A greater factor of safety  • No loss of strength due to additional welding or heating  • An improved performance against corrosion  • The ability to be threaded, grooved or bent to tight radii without splitting, creasing or collapsing  Using the correct welded steel tube in building-services applications is therefore vital, and for this reason the better durability and reliability offered by hot-finished products should always be considered. Tata Steel’s Install Plus 235 brand, for example, provides a robust solution for such demanding conveyance applications. This multi-certified tube range ensures that each product is aligned with both the CE marking requirements of the Construction Products Regulations (CPR) and also the Pressure Equipment Directive (PED), by manufacturing to both BS EN10255 and BS EN10217 Part 2. It is important to note that only by requesting an BS EN10217 Part 2 product, can you guarantee that a hot-finished or ‘GH’ (Get Hot) steel tube will be supplied.  To highlight the importance of tube manufacturing and raise awareness of pipework related issues, Tata Steel, in collaboration with the School of Civil & Building Engineering at Loughborough University, has established the Building & Industrial Services Pipework Academy (BISPA). This supports the building and industrial services industry by offering training courses and CPD programmes focused on a range of industry issues, including tube specifications and the benefits of hot-finished products.  Therefore, when considering what tube to use for a building-services application, looking beyond the specification to the manufacturing process is strongly recommended. Remember, not all steel tubes are the same. Hot-finished steel tubes can provide an unparalleled level of reliability and durability within pipework systems, delivering safety and performance benefits as well as a longer life.  Stewart Jones is senior customer technical services field engineer for conveyance tubes at Tata Steel.
Understanding steel tubes — Stewart Jones.

Some like it hot

Stewart Jones of Tata Steel discusses the benefits of hot-finished tubes over cold-formed alternatives in building service applications.

Viega press connections reveal their integrity

Viega press fittings are now available in the UK with SC-Contur technology for pipe connections from 12 to 108 mm. SC-Contur technology provides a flowpath within the fitting that leaks slightly if the fitting is inadvertently unpressed. Water will visibly escape from unpressed connections when the system pressure is between 1 and 6.5 bar. For dry testing with inert gas, a measurable drop in pressure will occur between 22 mbar and 3 bar.

Belimo, actuator, valve, pipes, pipework

Retrofit actuators for almost any globe valve

Belimo’s replacement actuators for globe valves have customisable parameters and are equipped with a universal valve neck and stem adapter. They can be installed quickly and easily on virtually all valves from manufacturers worldwide.

Albion Valves, commissioning, balancing, pipes, pipework
Paul Wightman (right) discusses Albion’s Expert Ease approach to commissioning.

When size matters

Faced with less and less space being available for piped services, how can designers respond. Paul Wightman of Albion Valves shares some ideas — ideas that can also improve the operation and response of those systems.

Pump-systems course

The British Pump Manufacturers’ Association offers a one-day course dealing with pump systems. It examines the factors that should be considered when designing a pump system. It uses a combination of presentations and exercises in a practical approach to what is a complex subject.

Kingspan, insulation, pipes, pipework

Kingspan pipe insulation gets Green Guide rating

Kingspan Kooltherm FM pipe insulation has been evaluated under the BRE’s Green Guide ratings table and methodology for pipe insulation. This new approach has been designed to provide a more accurate assessment of the environmental impact of pipe insulation in-situ. The FM pipe-insulation system received the highest summary ratings of A and A+.

Xylem, pumps, Lowara, pipes, pipework

Xylem expands e-series range of in-line pumps

Xylem’s extended Lowara e-series global range of pumps includes highly efficient in-line and end-suction pumps that exceed the 2015 European Ecodesign requirements of a minimum efficiency index (MEI) of no lower than 0.4. In many cases, e-series pumps have an MEI greater than 0.7. The range extension adds 29 in-line single and twin pumps, including models with stainless-steel and duplex bodies, more sizes and 60 Hz models. The updated series covers a new set of duty points, making it suitable for a wider range of HVAC and industrial applications.

Roger Carlin, managing director of Ashford Environmental Services (left) receives the CSA Award for innovation in commissioning. He is pictured with Silas Flytkjaer of SAV Systems, a sponsor of the CSA awards.

Ashford’s award-winning approach to flushing systems

Traditionally, vast quantities of clean, potable water are discharged to drain during the dynamic flushing procedure that is part of the pre-commission cleaning process of a closed pipework system. Up to 20 times the system volume may be required, which has to be discharged to drain.

Francis Pegler, Pegler Yorkshire, taps. pipes, pipework

Taps respond to evolving consumer trends

In response to consumer trends, Francis Pegler offers a range of brushed-nickel taps. Mike Johnson, washroom market manager for Pegler Yorkshire, explains, ‘More and more consumers are wanting to step away from the high shine that chrome offers and prefer a more muted style that perfectly complements cookware and kitchen appliances often found in brushed textures.’

Grundfos Pumps, pipes, pipework

Grundfos can the can

When a leading UK manufacturer of beverage cans wanted to investigate the potential for saving energy on its installed pumps systems, it approached Grundfos to undertake an energy check. It focused on the washing lines, and a comprehensive report was produced, as a result of which a number of pumps were replaced.

Elco, space heating, HIU, district heating, heat network, pipes, pipework

Elco delivers network heating for luxury apartments

Residents of luxury apartments at The Franklin in Bournville, Birmingham have their heating and hot water provided by Nexus Futura IS heat interface units (HIUs) from Elco Heating Solutions. 79 HIUs have been installed as part of a network heating systems. They are connected to three Elco R603 floor-standing boilers in a centralised plant room.

Rinnai, DHW, pipes, pipework

Rinnai offers solution for large volumes of DHW

Rinnai’s Infinity Plus Cascade system offers a solution for providing hot water in larger commercial premises. These custom-made solutions are based on modules incorporating 1500 or 1200 condensing units with Rinnai’s newly developed common-heating flue-system technology. Any number of modules can be manifolded together.

British Pump Manufacturers Association, BPMA, pumps, pipes, pipework
Peter Reynolds — president of the British Pump Manufacturers Association.

Addressing the threat of non-compliant pumps

Pumps that do not comply with UK and European standards entering the UK are a major concern to the pump industry, and their use is fraught with risk. Peter Reynolds, president of the British Pump Manufacturers Association, explains what is being done to tackle the problem.

Sanha, press fittings, pipes, pipework

Biomass specialist enjoys the benefits of Sanha press fittings

Sanha press-fit technology for pipes has been used by Woodtek Energy, a leading manufacture of drying machines for wood chips, in its biomass heating systems. The Nirosan press system has consistently saved substantial time and labour for Woodtek, and director and co-founder Stuart Jones explains, ‘The labour savings are significant. What used to take five days in traditional piping systems now only takes two with the Sanha press system.’

Banninger, press fitting, push fitting, pipes, pipework

Taking the heat off plumbing

With so many press and push fit products on the market, it can be difficult to know which to choose. Bill Barlow of Conex Bänninger offers some guidance.

REMS, potable water, commissioning, pipes, pipework
The flushing and disinfection requirements of EN 806-4 for potable-water installations can be achieved with this kit from REMS.

Commissioning potable-water installations

Steven Mesher of REMS (UK) looks at the requirement for the avoidance/ removal of bacterial contamination during the commissioning of potable-water installations and how it impacts on the installer.

pipes, pipework, piped services, Sentinel Commercial, electrolytic scale inhibitor, water treatment

Electrolytic water softener continues to perform 10 years on

Sentinel Commercial’s KalGuard electrolytic scale inhibitor is proving to be an effective long-term solution in tackling a loud banging noise that started to come from a of hot-water boiler when it was just five years old. The noise, known as kettling, is caused by an accumulation of limescale deposits on a heat exchanger. A KalGuard unit was installed in 2005, and its anode has been replaced only once — in 2010. The current anode still has 25% life.

pipes, pipework, piped services, Grundfos Pumps

Grundfos helps Alder Hey enter a new era

The building-services systems of the new £237 million Alder Hey Children’s Hospital in Liverpool includes over 70 Grundfos speed-controlled pumps and booster sets, as well as pressurisation units and ancillary equipment. The system is supported by BACnet technology, a communications protocol used by building-management systems worldwide.

pipes, pipework, piped services, Rinnai, DHW, legionella
Legionella control when using continuous-flow water heaters in secondary-return DHW systems.

Legionella management with continuous-flow hot-water systems

Many of the problems associated with controlling legionella bacteria in domestic- hot-water systems can be solved by choosing to install a gas-fired continuous-flow system, explains Chris Goggin, associate director with Rinnai UK.

pipes, pipework, piped services, Belimo, actuator, globe valve

Retrofit actuators for almost any globe valve

Belimo’s replacement actuator for globe valves have customisable parameters and are equipped with a universal valve neck and stem adapter. They can be installed quickly and easily on virtually all valves from manufacturers worldwide.

pipes, pipework, piped services, Grundfos Pumps

Tapping into the expertise of Grundfos Pumps

Grundfos Pumps offers a range of diagnostic tools on its web site, Including ‘Energy check’ and ‘Pump audit’. Not only will they establish the performance of a current pump system, but they also provide reports with details on potential savings and payback period, as well as various pump options.

pipes, pipework, piped services, Sirmens, ball valve

Siemens extends Acvatix range of ball valves

Additions to the Acvatix range of ball valves from Siemens Building Technologies enables the company to offer valves in sizes from 15 to 50 mm with internal and external threads. These valves are suitable for hot- and cold-water systems and have been designed for robust performance and easy installation.

pipes, pipework, piped services, SAV Systems, flow temperature, community heating
The benefits of low system temperatures — Silas Flytkjaer.

Heat networks — how low can you go?

Maintaining the low system temperatures required for efficient operation of heat networks presents a design challenge for building-services engineers. Silas Flytkjaer of SAV Systems highlights the importance of effective temperature and pressure control.

pipes, pipework, piped services, manifold, PICV, commissioning, Danfoss

Danfoss integrates control for hydronic systems

Danfoss describes its Hero flushing bypass manifold as a time-, cost- and space-saving solution that features all the main components needed to install, flush, balance, control and maintain terminal units in HVAC system with variable flow. A cost analysis by the company showed that Hero can achieve a 23% saving in time and cost during installation compared with an option assembled on site.

pipes, pipework, piped services, Oventrop, DHW, domestic hot water

Oventrop modular HWS generation installed for hotel refurbishment

The refurbishment of the Holiday Inn Express hotel at Edinburgh Airport has its hot-water requirements met by Oventrop Regumaq Cascade units. There are four wall-hung units that heat cold water as required by drawing heat from thermal stores — in this case two electrically heated buffer tanks — through a plate heat exchanger.

pipes, pipework, piped services, Rinnai, DHW, domestic hot water

Rinnai water heaters add to the comforts of country club and spa

This installation of Rinnai direct-fired water heaters at a country club and spa is part of a decentralised system comprising 17 A-rated gas-fired condensing units capable of delivering 20 000 l/h of temperature-controlled hot water. Installed at the Hale Country Club & Spa in Cheshire, the 1500i units serve executive soaker showers, poolside showers and changing-room showers.

pipes, pipework, piped services, Kooltherm, insulation

London icon benefits from Kooltherm pipe insulation

To reduce the heat transference from service pipework in 20 Fenchurch Street, London (the ‘Walkie Talkie’ building) 20 000 linear metres of Kingspan Kooltherm FM pipe insulation has been installed, helping to achieve a BREEAM ‘Excellent’ rating and a post-construction score of 80.2%. The building offers 63 000 m2 of office space and is topped with a massive sky garden. The well known concave design was created by Rafael Viñoly.

pipes, pipework, piped services, warranty, Pegler Yorkshire

Pegler Yorkshire launches long-term reassurance solution

Pegler Yorkshire’s Warranty Plus initiative covers complete pipework systems, rather than individual components. It was created after in-depth research with contractors showed the need for such a warranty, which took two years to develop. The scheme is designed to ensure more efficient installations and provide reassurance for many years. The 3-stage process offers support for projects over £250 000.

pipes, pipework, piped services, Evinox, community heating, district heating

Evinox focuses on community and district heating at Ecobuild

Evinox Energy will be featuring its expertise in communal and district heating at Ecobuild (see below). The company makes its own range of modern heat interface units (HIUs) designed with efficiency and end-user comfort in mind. The company also offers metering and billing solutions, and smart control technology.

pipes, pipework, piped services, plastic pipe, pump, energy efficiency, Durapipe
Energy-saving pipework — Des Dolan

How plastic pipes can boost energy efficiency

Measuring the head losses and pump-duty requirements of plastic pipework revealed some amazing results. Des Dolan of Durapipe discusses the findings.

pipes, pipework, piped services, DHW, domestic hot water, Rinnai

Hot water that doesn’t run out at tourist site

Hot water for a new toilet and shower block at the Sunbourne Glan y Mor Leisure Park in west Wales is provided by two Rinnai Infinity HDC 1500 continuous-flow units. The facilities cater for campers and touring caravans and also include a launderette.

pipes, pipework, piped services, prefabrication, fabrication, Pipe Center
Delivering the benefits of prefabricated pipework — Gary Franklin.

An holistic approach to pipe fabrication

Against the backdrop of Pipe Center having opened a purpose-built branch and fabrication facility for pipework at Basildon, Gary Franklin gives an insight into the many benefits of this evolving approach to pipe fabrication.

The challenges of refurbishment

Mechanical grooved pipe-joining systems overcome many issues that are encountered in refurbishment projects, says Simon Ouellette of Victaulic.

pipe, pipework, pipe services, commissioning, cleaning pipework, BSRIA

Pre-commission cleaning of pipework systems

A training course by BSRIA on 1 December will cover the main principles of pre-commissioning as set out in the BSRIA guide ‘Pre-commissioning cleaning of pipework systems’ (BG 29/2012). This publication provides guidance on pre-commissioning cleaning and reflects the latest British and European standards.

pipe, pipework, pipe services, Hydraquip, Tema, double shut off coupling

Hydraquip brings double-shut-off couplings back to the market

Hydraquip has launched a new range of double-shut-off couplings for the commercial H&V and air-conditioning sectors. Hydraquick couplings can be connected and disconnected without having to shut down or drain the system. Terminal units can also be looped out during the flushing process.

pipe, pipework, pipe services, Durapipe, plastic pipe, Expansion
Pipes on the move — Des Dolan.

Pipes on the move

Des Dolan of Durapipe answers some frequently asked questions about catering for thermal movement in plastic pipes.

pipe, pipework, pipe services, Marflow Hydronics, commissioning, balancing

The diversity of Marflow Hydronics’ Xterminator

Marflow Hydronics reports that its Xterminator valve set is increasingly being used with a variety of different terminal devices, showing it to be a highly diverse product.

pipe, pipework, pipe services, Airmec, water treatment

The chemistry of treating water in closed systems

Simply adding chemicals to water in a closed system can do more harm than good. Understanding the chemistry is all-important, as Peter Bowles of Airmec explains.

pipe, pipework, pipe services, Conex Bänninger
The all-round benefits of specification — Dave Dickson.

The importance of specification

Why, and how, does a supplier choose do go down the specification route? And what are the benefits for a project? Dave Dickson of Conex Bänninger gives a perspective.

pipe, pipework, pipe services, Grundfos Pumps

Tapping into the expertise of Grundfos Pumps

Grundfos Pumps offers a range of diagnostic tools on its web site, Including ‘Energy check’ and ‘Pump audit’. Not only will they establish the performance of a current pump system, but they also provide reports with details on potential savings and payback period, as well as various pump options.

pipe, pipework, pipe services, Kalguard, limescale

KalGuard limescale preventer in 22 mm size

Commercial now offers its KalGuard system for preventing limescale formation as a 22 mm package suitable for most small commercial buildings. It includes a zinc anode unit, water meter and controller that is set to a 22 mm commissioning mode to create a true plug-and-play solution.

pipe, pipework, pipe services, Micronics, flow measurement, heat meter

Clamp-on meter measures heat and energy consumption

Micronics’ U1000 HM heat-energy-meter device can be used straight out of the box with no programming or specialist engineering required. It is described as a cost-effective alternative to installing in-line meters and does not require pipes to be drained down or cut.

pipe, pipework, pipe services, Trend, PICV, pressure independent control valve

Trend launches range of PICVs

Trend Control Systems has extended its range of control systems with a range of pressure-independent control valves (PICVs). These valves are well suited to variable-flow systems in new builds. They provide constant flow under varying pressure conditions. One unit replaces three separate components that would traditionally be used — a differential-pressure regulator, a maximum-flow limiter and a temperature control valve.

pipe, pipework, pipe services, Stokvis, plate heat exchanger, DHW

Hotel chain continues conversion to packaged plate heat exchangers

The conversion of hot-water services at the De Vere training centre at Latimer Place near Cheshunt in Hertfordshire to use Stokvis Econoplate packaged plate heat exchangers is the latest in a series of such projects by this hotel and conference chain. The De Vere training centre provides 40 bed places for the personnel of a corporate client, together with fine dining and other back-of-house services in this historic landscaped setting.

pipe, pipework, pipe services, Geberit, drainage
An unseen issue — Victoria Willis.

Bathroom noise — the invisible menace

The noise of soil stacks in operation is distasteful to many people, especially in hotels and apartment blocks. Victoria Willis of Geberit shares some practical ideas on minimising the issue.

pipe, pipework, pipe services, Atag, boiler, space heating

Atag supplies replacement boilers for Keele University

Atag XL boilers have been installed at Keele University as replacements in heating and hot-water systems servicing the IC1 and IC2 science block. One of the key selection criteria was low lifetime costs. The boilers were supplied by Atag Commercial and installed by the main contractor for the work, Climate Heating & Plumbing Services.

pipe, pipework, pipe services, Belimo, PICV, pressure independent control valve

Belimo EPIVs help keep leisure centre open during renovation

As part of major renovation of the heating-distribution and complex ventilation system of the Happyland leisure centre in Klosterneuburg, Austria, 45 Belimo EPIVs (electronic pressure-independent control valves, the orange units in the picture) were installed on eight distribution circuits during operation to avoid loss of revenue.

pipe, pipework, pipe services, Grundfos Pumps

Pumps and systems in harmony achieve the ultimate performance

According to Grundfos, changing to high-efficiency pumps that incorporate advanced motor technology can reduce an average pump’s energy consumption by up to 60%. Pumps account for 10% of global electricity consumption, and many are said to be needlessly inefficient.

pipe, pipework, pipe services, Marflow Hydronics, PICV, pressure independent control valve, commissioning, balancing
Economic and technical advantages — Nick Martin.

Enjoying the benefits of PICVs

With BSRIA’s recent prediction that the market for PICVs (pressure-independent control valves) is set to grow rapidly, it seems that the strengths of PICVs are finally being acknowledged across the industry. Nick Martin of Marflow Hydronics looks at what benefits PICVs really bring to piped services.

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Welcome to Modern Building Services Online, the web edition of Modern Building Services (MBS) journal and the UK's most popular Building Services engineering site. Modern Building Services covers the entire Building Services Engineering industry. This site contains archived content from the journal, plus web-specific content.

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